Building a Foundation for Your Faith:
A Guide to Bible Study and Theological Tools (3)
BIBLE DICTIONARIES 圣经词典
The one single volume which I think a Christian should purchase to supplement his/her Bible is The New Bible Dictionary (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans; originally published by Inter Varsity Press, 1962); Chinese translation: Sheng Jing Xin Ci Dian 《圣经新辞典》(2 volumes; Hong Kong: 天道Tien Dao, 1993, 1997). The Chinese version, based on the 1982 2nd edition, is expensive (approx. US $155 in North America for the two volumes), but well worth the investment. You need to learn to use it regularly!
You can also use the CD-Rom version of the Chinese edition, produced by Almega （启创）.
笔者认为，除了《圣经》以外，基督徒最需要具备的一本书，就是《圣经新辞典》（香港：天道，1993，1997）。中文版比较昂贵（在美国零售价：约US $155）；可是读者可以考虑购买 CD-Rom 版（启创，www.almega.com.hk ）。
When you are preparing for a Bible study lesson or sermon, after you have studied the passage, look up the most significant (“heavy”) doctrinal words in the dictionary. Here are some examples:
The New Bible Dictionary lists all the contributing authors in the front of Volume 1. You can learn to identify the author of each article. Here are some authors who are solid and reliable, who have written significant articles on doctrinal themes in The New Bible Dictionary:
Leon Morris 莫理昂－－澳洲新约学者与神学家 。Australian theologian, wrote article on “Atonement”.
R. A. France 法兰士－－着有 The Living God (《认识永生神》，校园) 等 。Author of The Living God (Chinese: Ren shi yong sheng shen 《认识永生神》，台北：校园 ) and several other books.
J. I. Packer 巴刻－－辞典中着有 “默示” (“Inspiration”) 等文章；著作有中译本者包括《认识神》、《简明神学》、《活在圣灵中》、《传福音与神的主权》、《基要主义与神的道》 等。 Packer wrote the articles on “Inspiration,” “Predestination” and many others; author of Knowing God, God’s Words, Concise Theology《简明神学》 , Keep in Step with the Spirit 《活在圣灵中》, and The Quest for Godliness, etc.
F. F. Bruce – New Testament scholar, for many years professor in Manchester, England; author of The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? (IVP)
Donald Guthrie －－多年来在伦敦圣经学院任教； 着有 New Testament Introduction, New Testament Theology 等。 Bible scholar, London Bible College; author of New Testament Introduction, New Testament Theology.
John Murray 慕理－－威敏斯特神学院已故教授; 着有 Redemption Accomplished and Applied (中译本：《再思救赎奇恩 》 ，天道) ; 他的《罗马书注释》被认为基
督教历史中最重要的著作之一。 Late professor, Westminster Seminary; his classic works include The Imputation of Adam’s Sin (Presbyterian and Reformed); Redemption Accomplished and Applied (Eerdmans); Commentary on Romans; and his 4-volume Collected Works of John Murray (Banner of Truth Trust).
R. V. G. Tasker －－英国学者，着有《圣经》注释数本。British author of several commentaries.
J. A. Motyer －－英国学者，着有《圣经》注释数本。British author of several commentaries, esp. in the Tyndale OT/NT commentaries series.
E. J. Young 杨以德－－威敏斯特已故教授，保守派旧约大师;着有 Thy Word Is Truth (Banner of Truth); Studies in Genesis One; Thy Servants the Prophets; 以赛亚书注释 （三册）; 中文有：《旧约导论》 (基督教文艺出版社) 。 Late Old Testament professor, Westminster Seminary; author of Thy Word Is Truth (still in print from Banner of Truth); Studies in Genesis One; Thy Servants the Prophets; a 3-volume commentary on Isaiah; An Introduction to the Old Testament 中译：《旧约导论》（香港：基督教文艺出版社，或道声出版社）, etc.
Herman Ridderbos – Dutch Reformed New Testament theologian
J. Barton Payne －－旧约教授，曾任教于圣约神学院，惠敦大学。 Former professor, Covenant Seminary and Wheaton College.
J. D. Douglas －－苏格兰教会历史家，多年来驻新加坡神学院；乃《圣经新辞典》之主编。 Scottish church historian; for many years professor at Singapore Bible College; the original general editor of The New Bible Dictionary!
Meredith Kline －－旧约权威，专着有关盟约的神学书籍，曾任教威敏斯特，哥敦神学院等。Brilliant Old Testament scholar; former professor at Gordon Conwell Theological Seminary and Westminster Seminary.
The New Bible Dictionary is an excellent “buffet table” where you can try “nuggets” from the giants listed above. Once in a while, in some of the articles authored by other scholars, one finds objectionable viewpoints, e.g. that parts of the Five Books of Moses were written after the Exile, etc. Let the reader beware.
《圣经新辞典》好像一台宴席，又像自助餐厅，让你品尝当代神学大师的杰作。不过，有时也会遇见一些作者在当代《圣经》批判理论面前低头的，如：说摩西五经是被掳后才写成的 (特别是在第二，三版里) ， 读的时候须谨慎。
For the course on “introduction to systematic theology” which I teach, I usually assign students to read these articles from the New Bible Dictionary:
Scripture (Bible) 圣经
Inspiration 默示 (by J.I. Packer)
Other helpful ones include:
Jesus Christ 耶稣基督
And the title of most of the books of the Bible!还有所有《圣经》的书卷！
Note: there are at least three English versions: the original New Bible Dictionary (the cover may look different because of different printings); the Tyndale Illustrated Bible Dictionary (3 volumes); and the New Bible Dictionary: Third Edition. I prefer the first: it is the original, it is the cheapest, and since it is older, it is not as much affected by contemporary theories of biblical criticism. The Tyndale edition is in 3 volumes, and has many illustrations in color. The text is the same as the older version; only the illustrations are new; and the price is rather high.
英文世界里 《圣经新辞典》以好几种形式出现。有原本的 New Bible Dictionary (第1、2版) ： 1962 年出版的第一版为最正统，可惜已经绝版，读者可去网上拍卖旧书的圈子去找；第二、三版加插了一些近代的《圣经》批判理论，读者留意。另外是Tyndale Illustrated Bible Dictionary (三册，附彩色图片)和 New Bible Dictionary: Third Edition。 总的来说，IVP 等出版社的产品，每出一次修订版，书里比较接受或同情最新的《圣经》研究理论的文章就会比上一版多些。
TOPICAL GUIDE TO THE BIBLE 主题汇编
Many Christians use the cross-references along their Bibles’ margins to look up the same word in other passages. This may or may not be a profitable avenue of exploring the Bible’s message. A much more helpful way is to use Baker’s Topical Guide the Bible (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1991) edited by Walter Elwell of Wheaton College. Chinese translation was published in 1996 as Zhu Ti Hui Shi Sheng Jing 《主题汇析圣经》 (Logos Publishers 基道出版社, Hong Kong). There is a simplified-script Chinese version as well as the traditional script version.
This is an excellent tool, because it is simply an arrangement of Bible verses, all typed out in full, according to an order of doctrine/systematic theology. This is helpful as you study a particular topic or doctrine.
多年来，信徒喜欢用串珠《圣经》。可是，有的时候所串的经文并不相关，让信徒有点随意地把一些经文连在一起来解说。最近在福音派圈子内出版了一本非常独特的参考书，中译本是 《主题汇析圣经》 (香港： 基道出版社, 1997)。 英文原著书名为： The Topical Analysis of the Bible (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1991)； 后来易名为 Baker’s Topical Guide to the Bible。主编是惠敦大学的资[c1] 深神学教授 Walter Elwell. 这本参考书非常宝贝，因为它看上来虽然与经文汇编一样，可是它的排法乃是按照教义（系统神学）的主题，如：启示、神论、人论、罪论、基督论、圣灵论、教会论等。这样，读者可是对某一个教义主题的主要经文一目了然，所有的经文都完全打了出来。《主题汇析圣经》已有光碟版本 (e-book, CD Rom)，由香港启创 (Almega) 出版。要为自己的信仰打好根基的信徒，不容错过。
BIBLE SURVEYS AND BIBLE INTRODUCTION (BACKGROUND)
The main message of the Bible is: the eternal God, the creator of the universe, has entered into time and space, to concretely reveal himself. Therefore God’s revelation is understandable. This message stands in stark contrast with what many modern theologians are saying: that God is “wholly other,” we cannot really know God himself, and his revelation is really beyond the grasp of human reason or experience. Many theologians have given up the belief in “propositional revelation” (that is, God has told us things, ideas, concepts, doctrines, in the Bible). Dear brother/sister, the Holy Spirit has given us the words of the Bible by inspiration; we can read the Bible to understand and know what God has said! We need to meditate upon Scripture day and night, and obey it all the years of our lives. The Bible is a book we can come to understand!
《圣经》的主要内容是：永恒的神、宇宙的创造主，进入到时间、空间，具体地启示自己 (God concretely revealed himself)，因此神的启示是人能够认识的。不像一些当代神学家所说，神是不可言谕的，祂的启示也不能被人的理性掌握，“命题的启示” (propositional revelation) 逐渐被神学家摒弃。亲爱的信徒读者们，圣灵默示了人把神的话写下，是要我们可以阅读、明白、昼夜思想、终生遵守。神的
After mankind fell in Adam, God revealed himself as the covenant-making lord and covenant-keeping lord. The theme of the Old Testament is “covenant”: God has come to establish the relationship of covenant with his people; he will be their God, they are his people. The theme of the New Testament is the “kingdom of God”: this means that God has come, to be king, to rule as king. Jesus Christ is the king from heaven; he has come, therefore the kingdom has come (or has drawn near). Christ will return a second time; at that time the kingdom will completely become a reality. You see, the Old and the New Testament both revolve around God and his plan. Our faith is not man-centered, it is God-centered. Everything comes from him, works through him, and is unto his glory. Is it this way with your faith? Is your faith self-centered or God-centered?
在人类堕落之后，神显现自己为立约的神、守约的神。旧约的主题乃是神的约 (covenant)：神作以色列人的神，以色列作神的子民。新约的主题是天国 (kingdom)：天国（神的国）的意思就是，神来了，要作王，掌王权。耶稣基督是天国的王，祂来了，因此天国来了(或说：近了)。主耶稣必再来，天国完全实现在宇宙中。因此，新旧约《圣经》都以神和神的计划为中心。我们的信仰不是以人为中心的，是以神为中心，因为万物都出于祂、藉着祂（依靠祂），也归于祂。你我的信仰到底是以自己为中心，还是以神为中心呢？
If you are getting started in Bible study, you need to make sure that you use reliable, Bible-believing guides to establish your faith. A reliable Bible survey will help you grasp the main theme of each book of the Bible. Before you use a “Bible survey,” you should have already been using a standard study Bible (NIV Study Bible, Spirit of the Reformation Bible, etc.). You should already know something about the author, background and main theme of each book of the Bible.
一位在查经起步的学生，应该用一些信仰保守可靠的《圣经》导论书籍，来帮助建立一个以神为中心的信仰。一本可靠的《圣经》综览 (Bible survey) 能帮助读者掌握每一卷书的主要内容。使用《圣经》综览之前，应该已经善用一本研读版《圣经》（更新传道会主办的新国际版是标准的研读版《圣经》），对每一卷书的作者、背景和主题已有一般的认识。
There are many surveys of the New Testament; for may years, Merrill Tenney’s New Testament Survey has been very reliable. Dr. Tenney served during his lifetime as dean of Wheaton College Graduate School of Theology. During roughly the same time (mid-20th century), Dr. Gleason Archer was teaching Old Testament at Moody Bible Institute and later Trinity Evangelical Divinity School. His text, A Survey of Old Testament Introduction, was nicknamed “the yellow Bible,” because so many of his quizzes and examinations were based on a detailed grasp of the material in it! Both Tenney and Archer are available in Chinese.
新约《圣经》综览方面，多年来最可靠之一的是：滕慕理，《新约综览》 (香港：宣道出版社，1976；原着：Merrill Tenney, New Testament Survey, Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1961) 。 Tenney 博士生前曾任惠敦大学神学研究院教务主任多年 (dean, Wheaton Graduate School)。
旧约综览方面，Gleason Archer 的A Survey of Old Testament Introduction (Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1964，中译本：《旧约概论》) 是多年来慕迪圣经学院和芝加哥三一神学院学生的必读教科书，被称为 “黄皮圣经” (yellow Bible), 因为作者往往要学生仔细掌握内容，准备考试！
The word “introduction” is a technical term in theological studies. Thus, an “introduction to the Bible” is more advanced in content than a “survey of the Bible.” Edward J. Young, who taught for many years at Westminster Seminary, has written An Introduction to the Old Testament, in which he stands firm in evangelical convictions, yet engages with liberal critical scholars. Donald Guthrie, former dean of London Bible College, has given us New Testament Introduction. Guthrie gives an overview of the many theories on a debate, and then seeks to offer reasonable support for the conservative view. This is the kind of approach which contemporary evangelical scholars should, but do not, imitate. Both Young and Guthrie solidly stood within the evangelical tradition.
入门 (introduction)是神学的专用名词，一本《圣经》入门就比《圣经》综览仔细，学术程度比较高。旧约入门方面，杨以德 (Edward J. Young)，《旧约导论》 (香港：基督教文艺出版社) 是持守坚固福音派立场，同时与当代学术理论对话的一本少有的好书 。伦敦圣经学院的Donald Guthrie也着有 New Testament Introduction，内容比较详细。这两本信仰立场都保守可靠。
More recently, two Westminster professors, the late Raymond B. Dillard and Dr. Tremper Longman III, has written An Introduction to the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994) in the spirit of E.J. Young’s masterpiece. Well worth your careful study; but use E.J. Young as your standard for orthodoxy. Available in Chinese.
近年来威敏斯特神学院两位教授，继承杨以德的精神出版了《21世纪旧约导论》，值得参考，不过还是以杨以德 (E.J. Young) 为信仰正统的标准！（原着：Raymond B. Dillard and Tremper Longman III, An Introduction to the Old Testament, Zondervan, 1994; 中译本：《21世纪旧约导论》，刘良淑译，台北：校园，1999。）
Two helpful Old Testament history textbooks are: Leon Wood, A Survey of Israel’s History (Zondervan 1970) and Jack Scott’s God’s Plan Unfolded (Whreaton: Tyndale House 1976). Scott’s is a clearly covenantal perspective on the Old Testament. Wood is available in Chinese.
另外，《以色列民族史》 是一本易读的旧约历史教科书(原着：Leon Wood, A Survey of Israel’s History, Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1970) 。旧约历史综览方面，还有一本英文书：Jack Scott, God’s Plan Unfolded (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House, 1976)。
More recently, Palmer Robertson has written Christ of the Covenants, and Christ of the Prophets (both published by www.prpbooks.com). On a more popular level, he has written Covenants for adult Sunday School use (www.gcp.org).
Increasingly we are seeing new works done by Chinese evangelical authors; some of these books are directly adopted as adult Sunday School curriculum in Chinese churches.
A special genre of books deals with the major themes of the Old and New Testaments. Dr. Che Bin Tan, recently retired president of Taiwan’s China Evangelical Seminary, has written this type of book. His teacher, F.F. Bruce, was author of The Message of the New Testament.
有一类的书籍，是以《圣经》的信息为主题，扼要地勾画新约或旧约的教训。陈济民博士，前任中华福音神学院院长，写了好几本这种的书；他的指导老师 F.F. Bruce 也着了 The Message of the New Testament (中译：《新约信息》)，读者不容错过。
Unfortunately, a number of Chinese Bible scholars have imbibed liberal critical theories in Bible interpretation. For example, some might say that Genesis was not intended to give us a historical account of God’s work of creation; it is a book about the history of the patriarchs (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob etc.). They reject much of evangelical / fundamental beliefs as outdated, or “rotten theology.” Let the reader beware!
不过，在华人创作的《圣经》研究书籍中，好些不幸染上了最新的《圣经》批判理论，例如：说《创世记》的主题不是上帝创造天地，而是先祖的历史；先知不是未卜先知等等。结果让读者怀疑，是否所有以前所听、所领受的都是错误的？有的作者，称以前福音派的信念为 “坏鬼神学”（注：粤语 “坏鬼”的意思是：食物坏掉，不能吃），似乎是多破坏而少建设。读者买书时必须谨慎，阅读这类的书籍，应常求圣灵的光照，以免信仰走歪。
My position is: the Bible student should start with a clearly and solidly conservative reference tool such as Young and Archer.
我的立场是：起步研经的信徒，最好靠一些保守的作者，如杨以德的《旧约导论》，或 Archer 的《旧约概论》。
BIBLE HANDBOOKS 《圣经》手册
A handbook of the Bible combines material from a “survey” and a “dictionary,” often with material similar to that found in study Bibles. A standard example is the Eerdmans Handbook to the Bible (Lion Handbook to the Bible in the British Commonwealth).
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